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Advanced Plotting:
The CHARACTER ARC



PLOT ARC: The events that happen while the characters make other plans.
CHARACTER ARC: The emotional roller-coaster that the character suffers while dealing with the Plot.

Understanding Plot
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To make a story a cohesive whole, every single thing in it must be there for a reason. Every single character, object, location, and event must push toward the ending you have planned even if it doesn't look that way to the casual observer. In short, every scene in the story should either illustrate a characteristic attribute of a main Character or be an Event that makes your ending happen.

What the Character Arc does is map out the Emotional path your characters need to take to grow and change into the heroes and heroines your story needs to achieve your story's ending.

For the record, a Character Arc can be used all by itself as the plot-line for a story or in addition to an actual Plot Arc such as The Heroic Journey, or any of hundreds of Plot Arcs found in books and on the 'net.

My personal choice is to use a Character Arc in addition to a Plot Arc, but that's just me.


The 7 Stages of Grief:


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Shock &Denial – Pain &Guilt – Anger & Bargaining – Despair & Reflection – Precipice & Choice – Reconstruction & Adjustment – Acceptance & Hope



Why Grief?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Stories are about CHANGE; about adapting and overcoming circumstancing that should take the characters down physically AND emotionally -- and that takes Angst.

In a solidly built story, both hero and villain change and develop emotionally as well as physically. Changing takes suffering. Both the hero and the villain should suffer emotionally and physically to make those personal changes happen.

Think about how hard it is for YOU to change your mind about liking or disliking anyone. What would it take to change your mind? That's the level of suffering - of Angst - you need.

However, the ultimate difference between the Hero and the Villain is the Villain's failure to face his fears and make the final sacrificial emotional change. This inability to change and Mature is what allows the hero to take him down.

In short, in a battle between Maturity & Immaturity, Maturity always wins.

This isn't fiction. This is Fact. Without maturity, and the emotion of Compassion that comes with it, the human race would have wiped itself out in petty selfish squabbles ages ago. In fact, it almost did as recently as WWII.

What causes ANGST?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
"A change of circumstance of any kind (a change from one state to another) produces a loss of some kind (the stage changed from) which will produce a grief reaction. The intensity of the grief reaction is a function of how the change-produced loss is perceived. If the loss is not perceived as significant, the grief reaction will be minimal or barely felt. Significant grief responses which go unresolved can lead to mental, physical, and sociological problems. " - Editorial - TLC Group, Dallas Texas


Everyone deals with one form of angst or another on a daily basis.

The Dead Battery
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
You're on your way to work. You go out to your car, put the key in the ignition and turn it on. You hear nothing but a grind; the battery is dead. Think about how you typically react: What's the first thing you do?

1. SHOCK & DENIAL:
"Oh no! No! No! No! Not the battery!" You try to start it again. And again. You check to make sure that everything that could be draining the battery is off: radio, heater, lights, etc. and then try it again. And again…

2. PAIN & GUILT:
"Damn it... Why does this crap always happen to me? Sure, I had problems starting it yesterday, but I didn't think it was this bad."

3. ANGER & BARGAINING:
"Start damn it!" Perhaps you slam your hand on the steering wheel? Then you try it again. "Damn you! Start! Start! Start! Please car, if you will just start one more time I promise I'll buy you a brand new battery, get a tune up, new tires, belts and hoses, and keep you in perfect working condition…"

4. DESPAIR & REFLECTION:
"It won't start. Crap. If only I'd taken it to the shop when I had the chance."

5. PRECIPICE & CHOICE:
"Crap, crap, crap... I need to get to work! Should I call in to work and tell them I'm not coming in, or just say I'm going to be late?"

6. RECONSTRUCTION & ADJUSTMENT:
"I need the cash too badly to skip out of work; especially now with the car. I'll call a taxi or maybe my friend and see if they can get me to work?" You pick up the cell phone and start dialing numbers.

7. ACCEPTANCE & HOPE:
"I'll call the mechanic from work and ask them to look at my car. Hopefully, it won't be too expensive to fix it."


STORY Stages of the Character Arc



1. Shock & Denial – "This can't be happening to me!"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
An Inciting Event has happened to ruin the Protagonist's blissful ignorance. Rather than deal with it the Protagonist keep going as though it never happened: "I'm busy! Go away!"

In The Thirteenth Warrior – Ibn Fadlan is an Arab noble who is literally pulled into a Viking adventure he wants no part of.

2. Pain & Guilt – "If only I hadn't..."
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The situation is no longer avoidable. It's right there staring them in the face and the Protagonist suspects that what happened is their own damned fault – even if it isn't.

In The Thirteenth Warrior – Ibn knows for a fact that he'd been sent out into the far reaches of civilization because he'd fallen in love with a noble's wife. However, his own mouth is what gets him into trouble with the Vikings -- and why they decided to take him with them on their monster hunt.

3. Anger & Bargaining – "Screw You!"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The main character does everything in his power to wiggle back out of the situation by way of threats, bribes, and outright begging. This is also where the Antagonist has his best chance of strong-arming the Protagonist into getting what they want by offering a quick solution – a bargain – that the Protagonist simply cannot refuse.

In The Thirteenth Warrior – Ibn has finally arrived in the far distant land and learned the language of the Vikings. It is then that he finds out exactly what sort of barbarous monsters he and his 12 companions are expected to defeat – and that they are in the thousands. To make matters worse, the king of that land is old and his son power hungry.

4. Despair & Reflection– "We're going to die."
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is where your characters realize exactly what they're up against and just how overwhelming the enemy truly is. Not only is their boat surrounded by alligators, a few more are in the boat with them disguised as friends.

In The Thirteenth Warrior – Ibn and the Vikings learn that the monsters are undefeatable. The Great Hall can not be defended. There are just too many. Another solution must be found.

5. Precipice & Choice – "Give up or go down fighting?"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Quite literally trapped in a "damned if you do, and damned if you don't" situation, desperation forces the Protagonist to make a personal Sacrifice during an emotionally heavy Ordeal (often provided by the Antagonist.) This often means facing the Protagonist's main debilitating fear -- and conquering it. This success gives them the inner strength to deal with their situation.

In The Thirteenth Warrior – In the hopes of taking out the two leaders of the monster tribe, Ibn and the Vikings sneak into the Monsters' vast caves with the full knowledge that it's a suicide mission. During this sneak attack, Ibn and the Vikings face a number of their fears and conquer them.

6. Reconstruction & Adjustment – "Okay, so here's the plan..."
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Protagonist finally gives up and commits himself to what needs to be done. Home is so far away it no longer matters. The problem at hand matters.

In The Thirteenth Warrior – Ibn and the Vikings have succeeded in taking out one of the leaders, but the other still survives. An attack is coming and there is nothing they can do but try to defend themselves.

7. Acceptance & Hope– "We'll make them regret messing with us!"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
With nothing left to lose, they throw themselves into the fray.

In The Thirteenth Warrior – Knowing that they are vastly outnumbered, Ibn and the Vikings fully expect to die, leaving them nothing left to fear. However, there is still the chance that the final leader will show his face. If one of them can succeed in killing him, hopefully that will stop the invasion before the monsters kill every last man, woman, and child.


"Must I use Grief?"


Does my character's arc have to be so…depressing?"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
In the Stages of Grief, the word "Grief" is actually misleading. The stages aren't strictly about crushing depression. They merely map the cycle of someone under emotional pressure created by conflicts; and story conflict should create emotional pressure for your characters. Never forget: Stories need Emotional conflict to be fulfilling.

However, the emotional conflict doesn't have to be Horrific! The stages can be softened.

For example:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Shock & Denial can become Indifference
- "So what?"

Pain & Guilt – Self-reproach
- "Okay, so maybe I could have...?"

Anger & Bargaining - Annoyance
- "You stay out of my way, and I'll stay out of yours. Okay?"

Despair & Reflection - Exasperation
- "How do I always get myself into these messes?"

Precipice & Choice - Aggravation
- "You know what? I don't need this crap!"

Reconstruction & Adjustment – Accommodation
-- "That's one less problem to deal with."  

Acceptance & Hope - Relief
- "Oh, now I have time to do other things."


"Do these stages go in EXACTLY this order?"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Denial ALWAYS comes First. Acceptance ALWAYS goes Last. The others can be juggled around as you please. Feel free to Experiment!

"Where the heck did you find these Stages?"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Human Psychology. You can look it up on Google by typing in: stages of grief.

"Are there Other maps for Character Arcs?"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Absolutely! Any human behavior pattern can be used as a Character Arc map. "The Stages of Grief" is merely the easiest to work with and most commonly used.

In Conclusion...
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Using a Character Arc is one of the best ways to enrich an otherwise dry event driven story. However, that's not the only function it serves.

Outlining a Character Arc for each of your three main characters (Hero, Ally, Villain,) is your most powerful Secret Weapon toward keeping your characters from running all over you. Knowing your Characters' emotional stage allows you to choose the events and situations that will Force your characters to make the decisions needed to make your ending happen.

After all, it's YOUR story.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DISCLAIMER: As with all advice, take what you can use and throw out the rest. As a multi-published author, I have been taught some fairly rigid rules on what is publishable and what is not. If my rather straight-laced (and occasionally snotty,) advice does not suit your creative style, by all means, IGNORE IT.

Looking for more of my Writing Tips & Tricks?
Advanced Plotting:
The CHARACTER ARC


PLOT ARC: The events that happen while the characters make other plans.
CHARACTER ARC: The emotional roller-coaster that the character suffers while dealing with the Plot.


What the Character Arc does is map out the Emotional path your characters need to take to grow and change into the heroes and heroines your story needs to achieve your story's ending.
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:iconashwolf-forever:
AshWolf-Forever Featured By Owner Jan 6, 2015  Professional General Artist
How many times can a character go through this in a single book? Because... I think one fanfiction story, my main character does this repeatedly.
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jan 7, 2015  Professional Writer
How many times can a character go through this in a single book?

Quick Answer:
 -- As many times as it Takes.

Not-so-quick Answer:
 -- Each character runs through their character arc as many times as it takes to Fix their Problem.

Keep in Mind:
 -- A story cannot end Conclusively until the main character's Personal Problem (displayed at the beginning of the story) is Solved for good or ill.
 -- Every time you change POVs, you're creating a new main character.
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:iconashwolf-forever:
AshWolf-Forever Featured By Owner Jan 7, 2015  Professional General Artist
Oh, OK! Thank you! I'm new to plotting and trying to find a "plug and play" way to do it. :)

That's good; because he's done it at least 4.

:nod: This story never changes POV. I think.
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jan 7, 2015  Professional Writer
Unfortunately, "Plug and Play" can only take you so far.
 -- I'm still looking for the perfect plot outline myself. What complicates that hunt is that each genre has a Different core plot outline depending on the genre's Goal and/or Intent; what that type of story is trying to Prove.
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:iconashwolf-forever:
AshWolf-Forever Featured By Owner Jan 7, 2015  Professional General Artist
I understand that, but anything is better than nothing. I mean, I usually know roughly where everything is going, but getting there is a whole nother ballgame. I just want something like a form I can fill in, or even several (max 3) to help me plan where my novels are going.

annieneugebauer.com/the-organi…

That looks useful. My main problem is my characters tend to derail my carefully laid out plan. I spend a good portion of my time getting to know them, feeling like they are real. When I put them in the situations I planned, they sometimes flat out refuse to do what I expected. Its OOC, and its NOT happening.

I hope if I can really plot out the story, I can find those spots before I start writing.
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jan 7, 2015  Professional Writer
annieneugebauer.com/the-organi…

Wow, that looks just like the worksheet my friend Jane showed me back in '92! I wonder if this author knows the same people I do? Anyway, that form is where I began.  If you look at my tutorials on plotting, you'll see that they have a similar format only with less extraneous text.

My main problem is my characters tend to derail my carefully laid out plan.
 -- Well, if you build the characters Before you work out a plot, that's what happens because those character want to tell their own story -- not Yours.

Try building the story/plot First then make (or find) characters that will actually do what you need to do to make your plot happen. 
Reply
:iconashwolf-forever:
AshWolf-Forever Featured By Owner Jan 7, 2015  Professional General Artist
That's possible. I stumbled across it. I did notice it was close, but to be honest, I'm the kind of person that needs to be walked through things at least the first few times. Since it doesn't come naturally.

I've noticed. I wouldn't mind telling their story, if they actually FINISHED their story. Often they gget so far then hit a brick wall. Then I pretty much say: Hey remember the plan? Mine? Wanna try THAT? Which doesn't work most of time.

I have so many stories and characters. I start with an idea, say "dragon meets young girl and becomes friends/lovers", and then try to figure out how they might have done so. I use that as an example because I have done that one repeatedly. Or, how do I show the "gray area" between right and wrong? What can I use to illustrate that? Which led to a conflict between animal rights and animal welfare, and a dog trained to destroy stray cats.

I actually made a wiki for my universe, since it gets so dang complicated. 
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:iconthe-winged-pyro:
The-Winged-Pyro Featured By Owner Jan 22, 2014
Huh... my character sorta hit acceptance and then denial when his sister got a plague-type disease and woke up from a coma as a completely different person. Weird O_o

Is that normal?
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Dec 30, 2014  Professional Writer
It doesn't matter if it's Normal. What matters is Did it Work in your Story? If it Did then it's fine.
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:iconninefiftin:
Ninefiftin Featured By Owner Jun 8, 2012  Hobbyist Writer
Very useful as usual ! Thanks !
I have a question though.
a Character Arc can be used all by itself as the plot-line for a story or in addition to an actual Plot Arc
I understand the part where the Character Arc is used by itself. But when it is in addition to a Plot, should the Character Arc happen within only one scene / chapter ? Can the different stages of this Arc be spread through the whole book, intertwined with the plot, something like "chapter 2 = stage 1", then various Plot stages, then "chapter 6 = Ch. Arc stage 2", etc., or is it confusing ?
(Not even sure that my question is clear... ^^;)
I'm wondering about this because as you said, a story is about evolution/change, and so will be the main Character Arc - but my Protagonist is too proud and too close-minded to change "quickly" and needs a 300 pages long book to evolve :dummy:
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jun 11, 2012  Professional Writer
Your question is perfectly clear.
The answer is: It depends on the story.

Some stories use the full range of the character arc in just One Scene where others need the stages dragged out to the end of the story. Other stories go only to a certain stage of the character arc then Fall Back and Repeat the stages over and over until the climactic scene.

The movie Star Wars, (A New Hope) for example, uses the full range of the character arc in each Location change because each location is a whole story all by itself.
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:iconninefiftin:
Ninefiftin Featured By Owner Jun 11, 2012  Hobbyist Writer
Okay, I see what you mean. You're always so helpful and clear, thank you for taking the time to reply! :heart:
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jun 11, 2012  Professional Writer
My pleasure. :)
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:iconadramelechblackflame:
AdramelechBlackFlame Featured By Owner Apr 11, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
yeah......i've tryed to find other human behavior patterns, all i can fid is peoples blogs about haveing ocd and feeling down, but not-down-enuff-to-call-it-deppresion. mind helping me out with maby a link or something?
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner May 17, 2012  Professional Writer
I'm still looking too. So far, the Only reliable patterns I've been able to find are the one for Grief, and the one for Romance. Both are in my tutorials.
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:icon326andwataru:
326andwataru Featured By Owner Mar 30, 2012  Hobbyist Writer
This work has been added to the favorites of #ThreeThousandWords [link]
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Apr 8, 2012  Professional Writer
Thank you, I'm honored!
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:icon326andwataru:
326andwataru Featured By Owner Apr 9, 2012  Hobbyist Writer
You are welcome!
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:iconmia826:
mia826 Featured By Owner Jan 25, 2012  Hobbyist Writer
OMG, thank you so much! This totally helped me clear up an author's block! I knew how my character would get depressed, and how she'd act later after she gets over it- but I could not find the stuff in between, as too HOW she gets over it. Thank you very much! :hug:
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jan 27, 2012  Professional Writer
I'm glad I could help!
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:iconvirtuosogray:
VirtuosoGray Featured By Owner Oct 28, 2011
Thanks for writing this^^
It has helped me in my graphic novel plot.
If only I had a sure beginning...
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Dec 6, 2011  Professional Writer
I'm glad you liked my tutorial!
-- Don't worry about the beginning. Lots of excellent stories start right in the Middle.
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:iconvirtuosogray:
VirtuosoGray Featured By Owner Dec 6, 2011
It really helped me^^
I'm starting to get more of the storey too :)
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Dec 6, 2011  Professional Writer
Excellent!
-- I love being inspiring.
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:iconelleviate:
Elleviate Featured By Owner Oct 7, 2011  Hobbyist Writer
Now, if only people will learn...
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Oct 9, 2011  Professional Writer
<Insert hysterical laughter>
-- One can hope.
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:iconelleviate:
Elleviate Featured By Owner Oct 13, 2011  Hobbyist Writer
Coercion by sickbed doesn't work well for the creative process, I've found.
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Oct 14, 2011  Professional Writer
I'm afraid I have to agree with that one, though I've gotten some fantastic story ideas while I was sick.
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:iconelleviate:
Elleviate Featured By Owner Oct 14, 2011  Hobbyist Writer
You're lucky. All I've gotten are ideas that seem fantastic while in a fevered haze.
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Oct 14, 2011  Professional Writer
Write them down anyway. You never know, they could end up being pieces of something actually worthwhile.
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:iconelleviate:
Elleviate Featured By Owner Oct 14, 2011  Hobbyist Writer
The one about a couple and a sex swing? Yeah...I'm sure I can't look at that again without reaching for brain bleach...
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Oct 15, 2011  Professional Writer
I'm an erotica author; as in a write erotica for a living. A sex swing is always a popular topic. ;)
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(1 Reply)
:iconshadowravenamz:
ShadowRavenAMZ Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
Thank you for taking the time to write this! I started developing characters and a story plot back in '05, and now that I feel like I finally have everything decently developed, I've been looking for a starting point for my book.

Without even realizing it, I was already setting up the story and the characters along this "Stages of Grief" Arc! I guess it really DOES boil down to human psychology :) I plan to read your "Writing Tips and Tricks" link above, but could you suggest any other helpful links? My main problem lies in that I have many ideas for specific scenes, but don't know how to connect them with equally entertaining segway scenes.
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jul 11, 2011  Professional Writer
I'm glad you liked the essay!

Without even realizing it, I was already setting up the story and the characters along this "Stages of Grief" Arc! I guess it really DOES boil down to human psychology.

LOL! We can't escape the landscape of our own minds.

My main problem lies in that I have many ideas for specific scenes, but don't know how to connect them with equally entertaining segue scenes.

Then DON'T connect them just yet. Go ahead and write the scenes out that you have. After you know what goes where THEN stitch them together with small bits of Introspection, where the character thinks and wonders about what just happened and what will happen next.

No one ever said you had to write a story In Order.
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:iconshadowravenamz:
ShadowRavenAMZ Featured By Owner Jul 11, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
I guess that brings me to another problem I'm having: I KNOW the story doesn't have to be written in order, but it drives me up a wall if I try to write out of order ^^; Guess I just need to keep experimenting until I find something that works?
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jul 13, 2011  Professional Writer
Experimenting is your best option to discovering how You write stories. Naturally, you're going to be stronger in some areas than in others, but time and experimentation will fix that too.
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:iconcohra:
cohra Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2011  Student General Artist
Hffh.. me again %D

I have a question about the first stage - denial.

In your opinion, could that part be 'before' the story?
I have an idea for a plot; well more than an idea but still not finished plotting around (xD) -
where people vanish sometimes. Sometimes it's "their fault" and sometimes it's not. (Complicated to explain)

Could the denial/indifference stage be before, and the book starts whit the vanishing of a loved one - where one suddenly realizes that there must be some reason behind it? And then take it from there? Or should it be outlaid in the story itself (not like some half-flashback-memories but actually part of the story).

I hope the question is somewhat understandable ><
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2011  Professional Writer
Could the denial/indifference stage be before, and the book starts whit the vanishing of a loved one - where one suddenly realizes that there must be some reason behind it?

Absolutely!!!
-- You can start a story anywhere in the character arc.
Reply
:iconcohra:
cohra Featured By Owner Jun 28, 2011  Student General Artist
Oh, good to know =D (Thanks again for all the replies)
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:iconmythical-darkener:
mythical-darkener Featured By Owner Jun 13, 2011  Hobbyist Writer
Thank you so much for writing this! :3 I'm always looking for new ways to explore plotting, and this has worked wonderfully in jump-starting one of my more dormant story lines. It's particularly useful due to the fact that it centers around what the characters are actually feeling rather than doing, which seems to add depth from the get-go.

Again, thanks, and cheers!
~Vaeru aka MythDark
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Jun 14, 2011  Professional Writer
Excellent! I love it when something I write really helps.
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:iconcharanty:
Charanty Featured By Owner Apr 13, 2011
This...Is just freaking brilliant.
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Apr 13, 2011  Professional Writer
I'm glad you like it!
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:iconcharanty:
Charanty Featured By Owner Apr 13, 2011
:hug:
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:iconko---ko:
ko---ko Featured By Owner Feb 14, 2011
I'm just going to say that I'm currently in the planning stages of my first non-fanfiction story and your tutorials have helped me alot. Just from reading these I already feel like a more accomplished writer. :) So I thank you for posting these online for people to read, grow and learn.
Reply
:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Feb 15, 2011  Professional Writer
You're very welcome. I enjoy helping my fellow writers.
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:iconabsynthememoir:
absynthememoir Featured By Owner Feb 5, 2011
very helpful. thank you!
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Feb 5, 2011  Professional Writer
Excellent! I'm glad you like it.
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:iconghostcharmer:
ghostcharmer Featured By Owner Feb 1, 2011  Professional Digital Artist
"Any human behavior pattern can be used as a Character Arc map." That made me very intrigued! What other behavior patterns have you discovered that could map to a character arc? Thanks for the awesome tutorials!
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:iconookamikasumi:
OokamiKasumi Featured By Owner Feb 1, 2011  Professional Writer
Check out the psychology sites. That's where I get mine.
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